The human being immunodeficiency virus is share into dois main types: HIV-1 e HIV-2. HIV-1 was discovered first and is more prevalent worldwide, if HIV-2 is less pathogenic and is mostly confined to oeste Africa. So once we usually say HIV, we are referring to HIV-1. The radical differences in between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections lie in ns mechanism that retroviral pathogenesis, i beg your pardon is not completely clear yet.
Você está assistindo: O que é hiv 1 e 2
According to the Centers porque o Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 166 HIV situations in the US identified in between 1988 e 2010 met a center’s an interpretation of HIV-2 infection. The majority of cases were reported in ns Northeast e either originated são de or were connected to oeste Africa.
Early test devised come detect uma of these viruses will certainly not detect ns other due to the differences in a genetic makeup of these viruses. End 55% of a genetic essa is different in this viruses. Reports likewise suggest that ns cross reactivity in between antibodies of HIV-1 e HIV-2 may result in misdiagnosis and under-reporting the HIV-2 infections. Immunoassays that have the right to differentiate in between both types ser estar available nowadays e can assist identify a specific type of HIV infection.
HIV-1 and HIV-2 have numerous similarities including their intracellular replication pathways, transmission modes e clinical effects leading to got immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, HIV-2 is less likely to progress into auxilia because the its reduced transmissibility. Thus, people infected by HIV-2 mostly remain non-progressors for a long period of time, while patients infected by HIV-1 progression faster and contract AIDS.
However, e se they progress, ns pathological process porque o both viruses is mainly similar, though HIV-2 is uncovered to progress at greater CD4 counts. HIV-2 infections are characterized by lower vírus loads of over 10,000 copies/mL compared to numerous copies/mL of HIV-1. However, ns body’s immune solution is more protective in ns case that HIV-2 infection for this reason slowing down an illness progression. If this immune an answer can be replicated, it can be supplied to hold-up disease progression in HIV-1 infected patients, increase survival rates and reduce dependence on antiretroviral therapy.
Subdivisions of HIV-1 e HIV-2
HIV-1 and HIV-2 are further separated into groups e subtypes. HIV-1 is divided into key or M group, outlier or ministérios group e non-M / ministérios or N group, a most usual of lock being grupo M, which is greatly responsible para the HIV epidemic worldwide. Ns other 3 groups ~ ~ relatively uncommon e are checked out in choose geographies including Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea.
Group M is further separated into genetically unique subtypes: A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J and K. Several of these subtypes integrate to form naquela hybrid virus referred to as ‘circulating recombinant form’. Subtype b is the dominant HIV-1 subtype discovered in a Americas, Australasia, e Western Europe and hence many of the clinical pesquisar on HIV is focused on these populations.
Globally, subtype ns accounts for just 12% the HIV infections. Although subtype essec represents virtually 50% of todos HIV impacted individuals, lesser research has concentrated on this subtype. Subtype essec is typically found in countries in southern Africa, where a incidence the HIV is very high. Cameroon and the autonomous Republic of Congo, ns region of beginning of HIV-1, have an excellent diversity of HIV-1 subtypes. However, a pattern of subtype distribution across a globe is transforming now, due to populace mixing e migration.
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The dois main subtypes that HIV-2 that ser estar considered epidemic ~ ~ A and B, though in bruta there ~ ~ about 8 HIV-2 subtypes established so far. HIV-2 group naquela infections estão mostly checked out in west Africa, though naquela few cases have to be reported in Brazil, Europe, US e India. HIV-2 group b infections ser estar seen only in oeste Africa.