The human being immunodeficiency virus is share into dois main types: HIV-1 e HIV-2. HIV-1 was discovered first and is more prevalent worldwide, if HIV-2 is less pathogenic and is mostly confined to oeste Africa. So once we usually say HIV, we are referring to HIV-1. The radical differences in between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections lie in ns mechanism that retroviral pathogenesis, i beg your pardon is not completely clear yet.

Você está assistindo: O que é hiv 1 e 2

According to the Centers porque o Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 166 HIV situations in the US identified in between 1988 e 2010 met a center’s an interpretation of HIV-2 infection. The majority of cases were reported in ns Northeast e either originated são de or were connected to oeste Africa.


Diagnostic Tests

Early test devised come detect uma of these viruses will certainly not detect ns other due to the differences in a genetic makeup of these viruses. End 55% of a genetic essa is different in this viruses. Reports likewise suggest that ns cross reactivity in between antibodies of HIV-1 e HIV-2 may result in misdiagnosis and under-reporting the HIV-2 infections. Immunoassays that have the right to differentiate in between both types ser estar available nowadays e can assist identify a specific type of HIV infection.

Disease Progression

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HIV-1 and HIV-2 have numerous similarities including their intracellular replication pathways, transmission modes e clinical effects leading to got immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, HIV-2 is less likely to progress into auxilia because the its reduced transmissibility. Thus, people infected by HIV-2 mostly remain non-progressors for a long period of time, while patients infected by HIV-1 progression faster and contract AIDS.

However, e se they progress, ns pathological process porque o both viruses is mainly similar, though HIV-2 is uncovered to progress at greater CD4 counts. HIV-2 infections are characterized by lower vírus loads of over 10,000 copies/mL compared to numerous copies/mL of HIV-1. However, ns body’s immune solution is more protective in ns case that HIV-2 infection for this reason slowing down an illness progression. If this immune an answer can be replicated, it can be supplied to hold-up disease progression in HIV-1 infected patients, increase survival rates and reduce dependence on antiretroviral therapy.

Subdivisions of HIV-1 e HIV-2

HIV-1 and HIV-2 are further separated into groups e subtypes. HIV-1 is divided into key or M group, outlier or ministérios group e non-M / ministérios or N group, a most usual of lock being grupo M, which is greatly responsible para the HIV epidemic worldwide. Ns other 3 groups ~ ~ relatively uncommon e are checked out in choose geographies including Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea.

Group M is further separated into genetically unique subtypes: A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J and K. Several of these subtypes integrate to form naquela hybrid virus referred to as ‘circulating recombinant form’. Subtype b is the dominant HIV-1 subtype discovered in a Americas, Australasia, e Western Europe and hence many of the clinical pesquisar on HIV is focused on these populations.

Globally, subtype ns accounts for just 12% the HIV infections. Although subtype essec represents virtually 50% of todos HIV impacted individuals, lesser research has concentrated on this subtype. Subtype essec is typically found in countries in southern Africa, where a incidence the HIV is very high. Cameroon and the autonomous Republic of Congo, ns region of beginning of HIV-1, have an excellent diversity of HIV-1 subtypes. However, a pattern of subtype distribution across a globe is transforming now, due to populace mixing e migration.

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The dois main subtypes that HIV-2 that ser estar considered epidemic ~ ~ A and B, though in bruta there ~ ~ about 8 HIV-2 subtypes established so far. HIV-2 group naquela infections estão mostly checked out in west Africa, though naquela few cases have to be reported in Brazil, Europe, US e India. HIV-2 group b infections ser estar seen only in oeste Africa.