"Cara inchada" a partir de bovinos, ns periodontite infecciosa, ver na visão desencadeada por antibióticos do solo

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The objective of this review on the investigation of "cara inchada" in cattle (CI), pursued over a last 30 years, was to elucidate a pathogenicity of ns disease e come to proper conclusions top top its etiology. CI has been widely considered to it is in of nutritional origin, resulted in primarily by minerais deficiency or imbalance. However, a disease consists of a rapidly progressivo periodontitis, affecting a periodontal tissues at ns level of a premolars e molars during ns period of this eruption generally starting in young calves. Ns disease led to great economic losses for farmers in central-western Brazil, after the occupation of novo land for cattle raising in ns 1960s and 1970s. The ao lado enlargement of ns maxillary skeleton of influenced calves gave the disease the difundido name the "cara inchada", i.e., puffy or enlarged face. The enlargement foi ~ found to be due to a chronic ossifying periostitis resulting from the purulent alveolitis that CI. Black-pigmented non-saccharolytic Bacteroides melaninogenicus, constantly together com Actinomyces (Corynebacterium) pyogenes, to be isolated in huge numbers são de the periodontal lesions. B. Melaninogenicus can be diverted in small numbers also em ~ the marginal gingiva of der few healthy and balanced calves maintained on CI-free farms. "In vitro"-assays showed that streptomycin e actinomycin, as well as a supernatants the cultivates that actinomycetes são de soils the CI-prone farms, used in subinhibitory concentrations to a bacteria tested, intensified significantly (up to 10 times) a adherence of a black-pigmented B.melaninogenicus come epithelial cell of the bovine gingiva. The antibiotics estão apparently produced in big quantities by a increased variety of soil actinomycetes, including the genus Streptomyces, that develop when soil microflora estão modified by cultivating virgin woodland or "Cerrado" (tree-savanna) for the o primeiro dia time ao cattle grazing. A epidemiology the CI now provides solid evidence that the ingestion with a forage of together antibiotics can possibly be an essential determinant factor for the onset and development the this infectious periodontitis. The antibiotic amplified adherence that B.melaninogenicus to the sulcus-epithelium of a marginal gingiva, is believed to enable it come colonize, form a plaque e become pathogenic. Over there is experimentalmente evidence that this determinant fator for a development of a periodontitis is present also in ns milk of the mothers that CI-diseased calves. It has actually been shown that ns bacteria isolated a partir de the periodontal CI-lesions create enzymes e endotoxins capable of destroying ns periodontal tissues. A epidemiology that CI, with its decline in incidence e its disappearance after number of years, can be described by ns fact that a former equilibrium of a microflora the the uma vez undisturbed virgin soil has been reached again and that ns number of antibiotic creating actinomycetes has actually been anew reduced. By this thinking and tudo de the encontro available, CI need to be thought about as der multifactorial transmittable disease, brought about primarily by ns anaerobic black-pigmented non-saccharolytic Bacteroides melaninogenicus, always together with ns micro-anaerobic Actinomyces pyogenes. Accordingly, ns onset e development of ns infectious periodontitis is apparently identified by ingestion with a forage of subinhibitory concentration of antibiotics produced in recently grew virgin soils. This hypothesis is sustained by a recent observation of fix up outbreaks that CI-periodontitis in former CI-prone areas, complying with fresh cultivation after many years.

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A infectious natureza of CI is confirmed by trials in i beg your pardon virginiamycin era used efficiently ao the oral treatment the CI-diseased cattle. Previously it has actually been shown, the spiramycin and virginiamycin, offered as additive in minerais supplements, prevent CI-periodontitis.

"Cara inchada"; cattle; periodontitis; Bacteroides melaninogenicus; determinant factor; soil antibiotics; streptomycin; actinomycin